What is Linux Shell?

Computers understand the language of zeros and ones that known binary language.Is it possible to control computers with  zeros and ones?It is too difficult to read and write and shell is a program that  remove all these difficulties.It executes commands read from the standard input device such as keyboard or from a file and translate it into computer binary language.

To find your shell type, open terminal then use this command:

My shell is bash.

Common Commands

Firstly I will tell you  command and then I will apply in terminal.

sudo -s : superuser do, Start a root shell. It asks for your password.I provides to run any command with root privileges.sudo



passwd : It helps you to change your password but firstly you should have

root privileges.




pwd : it shows you which directory you are in.

ls : shows you which folders there are in your directory.

cd : allow you to change directories.

cd ..  : go back one directory.





history : shows you which command you use. You can use the comman you use before with “  ! command number  “.









cal : It shows you calendar.







which “program”: shows you path of a program.




vi is a programmers text editor.

init 0 : shutdown the computer.




no more  :)

apt-get install “program” : It installs a program.







If you want,  you can stop installing with ctrl+z, but  Vim is a text editor and  necessary for next post:)